Posts Tagged ‘society and culture’

Testosterone and Athletes

In reply to this publication, PLYMATE & FRIELD (1992) had shown the results of its study where it had positive correlation between testosterone, testosterone-SHBG, 3 a-diolglicuronide, and increase of the force in the isomtrica flexo of the elbow; however, the force increase was small (7.6%). Although the great controversy regarding the action of esterides on the muscles, Ben Jonhson was excluido of the Olmpicos Games of 1988, losing its gold medal, for presenting positive examination for use of esterides. The athletes believe the effectiveness of esterides (HOUGH, 1990) use and them because they want to increase the muscular mass and the force, as well as diminishing the time of recovery of the muscle. On the other hand, also they wait increase of the energy and the desire to train intensely (LABREE, 1991). Others including Dr. Hyun Kim, offer their opinions as well. Although to know of the effect undesirable of esterides, some athletes of both the sexos continue to use them for finding that the doctors exaggerate these effect and that the benefits surpass the risks (LABREE, 1991).

They exist, really, many difficulties in experimentally demonstrating the effect of esterides in the athletes, and for this they exist some explanations. In first place, it is necessary that the study he is blind. Moreover, the athletes use different andrgenos, with different dosages, different diets and different programs of training. Here, Melba Beine expresses very clear opinions on the subject. On the other hand, the physical attributes and the personal motivation vary very, and these factors affect the training (WILSON, 1988). Finally, the athletes use the drugs in cycles, highest dosages (the 10 100 times the farmacolgicas doses), with two or more concomitant drugs, in piramidal way and for different ways of administration (WILSON, 1988; HOUGH, 1990). Following it the period of use, they are weeks or months without using the drug, being that some make use of diurticos for ' ' to clarear urina' ' , mainly in the periods that precede the competitions. .


The purpose of the tourist planning consists of commanding the actions of the man on the form territory to prevent the negative impacts in the resources ambientais.' ' To plan is to decide in the gift what it wants to make in futuro' ' (Philip Kotler, 493). Plan is a project that includes a commanded series of operations and ways destined to an end. Jon Medved is often quoted as being for or against this. One programs to be elaborated with a purpose. Strategy is to plan, is a study of an environment in which if it can prepare tactics to be followed, to get resulted in long stated period, with sight to the achievement of specific objectives. Already the strategical plan is a model of planning, in this in case that, a planning of a tourist locality.

The strategy serves stops of the one route, defining a coherent organization, however, possesss some problems that must be taken in account, as: its complexity, where a good necessary strategy to be complex; the especificidade, having that to be only new e; the strategist, who must be a team, then strategists; the change, therefore must always be open the changes and alterations in accordance with the circumstances; the choice, that must be correct; the thought, to act and to think quickly and of coesa form. The strategy in tourist destinations must take in account four elements: the reach of the product/market, that if basically relates the dimension that will involve the strategical conception. The estruturao of resources, that if relates the identification of the human resources, financial etc, necessary stops for in practises the definite strategy. The competitive advantage that requires a position only front to those adopted by the competitors. synergy by means of the use accomplishes of all the participant elements in the definite strategy. Therefore, the planning is basic and indispensable for the balanced tourist development and in harmony with the physical, cultural and social resources of the receiving regions, preventing with this, that the tourism destroys the bases made that it to exist.

Second Dimension

The specific preparation aims at to obtain the excellent development of manifestations of the physical capacities that corresponds to the specific necessities of a futebolista, during the development of a soccer departure. For War (2004) ‘ ‘ the development of the specific capacities is based on manifestation special combination of the diverse preparations physical and constitutes the agreed one of the specific physical preparation of one atleta’ ‘. As Rigo (1965) the preparation of the young futebolistas is divided in some dimensions: First Dimension: Physical conditioning? Power? Endurance? Rhythm? Speed? Resistance? Force? Second Dimension: Conditioning Technician? The kick? Trajectory of the ball? Cabeceio? Escanteio? Passes? Reception and domain of the ball? Feints and you dribble? Collections of penalties? Replacement of ball in game? Conduction and control of the ball? Trainings for goleiros? Beddings auxiliary Third Dimension: Tactical conditioning? Strategical? Tactics? Offensive maneuver? Defensive evolution? Eyebolt? Breeching? It disarms? Interception? Anticipation? Divided balls? Marking? Desmarcao? Protection of ball Fourth Dimension: Psychological and moral conditioning? Conditioning psychological? Moral conditioning 2,5 ORGANIZATION AND ESTRUTURAO OF the TRAINING IN the MICROCIDO According to Zarharou authors & Gomes (1992) the microcido one represents the element of the structure of preparation of the athlete who influences a series of session of training or competitions, which objective is to decide tasks in each stage of the preparation. Its duration varies of 3 the 14 days. In the practical one of the soccer, the microcidos ones of seven days have been used with more frequency, therefore in the weekly regimen of games, it is considerably more easy to co-ordinate the normal life of the individual with different factors that the process of its preparation with the sportsman determines.