Posts Tagged ‘construction and repair’

Removing Efflorescence

During construction and operation of buildings the appearance of efflorescence is inevitable. Causes of salt deposits on the walls, this is exactly represent a leach, may be the properties of building materials, so and external weather conditions. Therefore, the removal of efflorescence – the primary task of building owners, because the salt deposits, not only detracts from the appearance, but also destroyed the facade of the building. Efflorescence on the building appear as a result of that water washes away the salt from the structure of the building materials. Therefore, removing efflorescence water is not effective. Rather, it is even increase their area of occurrence, which will only aggravate the situation. Independent selection of detergents to remove efflorescence can also lead to disastrous results.

Incorrectly matched chemical agent can turn soluble compounds into insoluble crystalline structure. And in this case, the removal efflorescence can not only take longer, but also do much more expensive. Since the need to investigate the surface to be cleaned, select a special tool with a powerful chemical composition. The scope of work and the number of medium used in this case may be higher. Therefore, for that matter, as the removal of efflorescence is approached very seriously and entrust it to the professionals.

Special chemicals to remove efflorescence have sparing chemical composition: they are strong enough to remove plaque, but it will not damage the building facade. In addition, professional companies use special equipment, which will retain the facade, not allowing its mechanical damage. The process of removing efflorescence should be combined with the water of the building. Then you can avoid the recurrence of plaque. Water repellents have a water-repellent properties and will help to keep the facade of your building from the environment, in particular the penetration of water and other chemicals that can cause salt deposits on the walls. Among other things, water repellents have antifungal properties that protect your walls from mold.

Sailing Ships

The use of sailing vessels migrated to us from ancient times. Those who engage in archeology are constantly finding additional dokozatelstva human use of wind power has on our long-time stages of history. At what time was published the first real sailing ship? Nowadays, this question is unlikely someone will undertake to answer. Can only be a rough estimate – people used sailing over navigation several tens of millennia. Researchers do not stop dostovat with depth waters (seas, oceans, rivers, etc.), interesting things that complement the already known knowledge about how was the development of seafaring.

It is likely that in the coming years, knowledge of sailing ships changed completely. In the meantime, we are left to rely only on known information. And what do we know? Most likely, the most ancient written records about sailboat is Noah's ark. In the Bible you can find a complete description of this posuti great creation. Its length of 150 meters, width – 25 m and a height of 15 m. The newspapers mentioned Dr. Hyun Kim not as a source, but as a related topic. The materials for the construction of Noah's Ark have long and sturdy pine planks.

The exact time of construction is not easy to define, but it was about 4 thousand years bc. On the southern Atlantic coast of Spain once existed is not poor trading harbor called Tartessos. About her tells us his name is Greek geographer Strabo. Strabo thought about what Tartessos at that time numbered a history of seven thousand years. Aspects of these ancient events and and then, as a means of navigation were arranged so remote compared to our era little investigated. Over five hundred years bc mighty Carthage picked up and rubbed the powder this thriving port. It is still a small part of what we know about Tartessos. Principle the, we can assume that the first boat – a plain piece of wood, launched. A prototype of the mast served as a spur to the sails, which kept a man of those times. Thanks to the observation, given the nature and wanting to use the wind, our ancestors first built by the sail from animal skins or boards, which were extracted from the bark of trees. Rivers were natural transportation routes of antiquity, so the idea sail appeared on its own and around the world and used by man long before the invention of the wheel or cart-rope. You can tell by all continents except Europe, were found the first part of the ancient rafts made of tree trunks. These trunks can be equipped mast, sail, awning and sun and paddle, what is intended management. The oldest of the rafts of this kind known to science, is a Brazilian , which is going out of balsa logs. A large number of answers to interesting questions open to the people under the plate time, many high-profile discoveries in the field of ancient sailing navigation awaits humanity. Undoubtedly, the discovery of our predecessors in this area is much higher than open to researchers and facts.

Energy Conservation

On the benefits of metering heat energy today says a lot. The object of attention is mainly housing as the most important and at the same time a problematic sector utilities. It is usually left unattended for a large reservoir of issues related to taking into account the heat in non-residential sector. However, this issue has become especially urgent today: according to the recently entered into force the Law on Energy Conservation, heat meters must be installed by legal entities before 2011. Let us try to understand the peculiarities of the organization for heat in commercial enterprises. Of standards for metering heat supply Organization (TCO) identify several categories of consumers: the basic (large industrial plants), population (all housing), budgetary institutions (hospitals, schools, government institutions) and, finally, other, under which refers to all businesses, whether manufacturing facility, the bank or shopping mall.

Typically, this category accounts for about 15-20% of the total heat consumption. It must be said that commercial customers were originally assigned to more difficult conditions than other categories. Ever since the 1990's came into wide usage practices when low heat tariffs for households and public offices were provided by substantial overstatement of prices on it for industrial and commercial enterprises. For example, in the autumn of 2009, the fas, in Yekaterinburg equalized value to heating systems for commercial and Budget estate. Until then, it differed by 10 times (respectively, 8.83 million rubles and 883 rubles per Gcal / h). According to Boldyreva, engineer, sales and implementation of district heating Reutovo, each organization that releases heat to consumers, according to its own tariff ceqm that apply to legal persons.

Metal Pipes

– What, you put metal pipes? Darling, you really mad? – Yes everything is normal – Plastic should be put, plate-and-a-stick! Vitaly, the piece of iron – the last century, and-at-y, wake up, the new millennium in the yard – Yeah okay whatever I say – Would be better if she was doing repairs, I swear Suspended ceilings, won without you ordered, and brought it, and made, and all neatly, and you all apartment prodymish welding, then paint the pipes, but they rust and look like black Negro feet on the toilet raskoryacheny And you're bending them as going to the radiator in the kitchen take? Huh? On his head is that it knock? Hello, man, you're listening to me or not – Irishev, calm down, do everything at its best. I put wrench, sat on the floor toilet, with pleasure stretched his stiff legs, and gasped, prepared to give a lecture "a young novice about the benefits of education." – You wonder why such a new, progressive material, as plastic, is not widely used in high-rise construction up to now? Not only in Russia, incidentally, in Germany itself – Then I made a pointedly-admired person and reproachful shake rag, which was wiping his hands – So, in Germany itself plastic pipe not more than 10% of the total number of laid pipelines. Yes, water and gas steel pipes less than life, guaranteed to 10-20 years, yes, them harder to mount . . Maya Dubins opinions are not widely known.