Latin America

For example, the demographic growth of the countries and increased pressure on natural resources use, expansion of the process of globalization and free market economy, centralist and exclusionary policies of development of the countries, the technological dependence of the countries of the South and the role of transnational corporations, etc. Factors that have undoubtedly impacted in the behavior and evolution of the problems of indigenous communities and asymmetrical development scenarios that present today. Evolution and endogenous development of the indigenous communities in the context of Latin America there are many examples of diverse cultures and ethnic groups that inhabited the region from pre-Hispanic times and managed private and advanced forms of development and management of their territories and ecosystems. However, as it is well known, these local development processes were interrupted abruptly during the Spanish conquest from the century XV-, producing the greatest impacts and effects that dramatically changed the landscapes and territories occupied by indigenous cultures. This period was certainly not peaceful, by contrast, involved episodes of much violence and almost extermination of the indigenous communities of that time, and until today, significantly modifying the evolutionary course of their cultures and their traditional ways of life. Indeed today many indigenous communities face new episodes of violence by defending their collective rights and their ways of life and development in their originating in territories.

Indigenous communities have gone through successive changes (and disruption) relating to different development scenarios they encountered. Their local microspaces were transferred with the national macroespacios of the nation States in which they were immersed. In them the processes of accumulation and distribution of the wealth generated, according to the policies and economic models applied by the various Governments, were markedly centralist and exclusionary. Thus, in this multidimensional scenario of evolution and development of the indigenous communities, synthesize the predominance of two models (processes) main: exogenous and endogenous development models.


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